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新永利娱乐 - 概括主旨大意:很实用的五条建议

2020-01-11 10:43:04 浏览量:1294

新永利娱乐 - 概括主旨大意:很实用的五条建议

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概括主旨大意,很有用的五条建议。

总是听到“概括大意(main idea)”。而且基本“套路”就是那几句话:段首段尾句、文章开头和标题。

可是为什么我总是找不到?总是会找错?

为什么我觉得自己选的没错,老师却说我做的不对?

如何防止概括时出现这三种错误?

跑不到:概括不全;

跑过了:过于笼统;

跑偏了:题不对文。

下面五条建议,不仅仅是“干货”。

read the first and last sentences of the paragraph (or the first and last paragraphs of the article). authors often state the main idea near the beginning or end of a paragraph. look for a sentence that states the main idea. this is the stated main idea or topic sentence.

段落的第一句、或者最后一句;如果是整篇文章,则看第一段或者最后一段。其实文章如果有配图或者小标题的情况下,就更好找了。

pay attention to any idea that is repeated in different ways. if an author returns to the same thought in several different sentences (or paragraphs), that idea is the main or central thought under discussion.

阅读测试那种“四选一”的题目,如果只有一个选项在句子中能找到完全一样的原话,那么——呵呵你想多了,这不能说明什么!

正确的做法,还是内容:作者是否多次、用不同的句子、表达了同一个思想主题,而且还是在文章的不同位置,那基本就是他/她想告诉你的主旨。

look for reversal transitions at the beginning of sentences. these signal that the author is going to modify the previous idea. when a reversal transition opens the second sentence of aparagraph, there’s a good chance that the second sentence is the topic sentence and a stated main idea. some samples of reversal transitions:

作者常常在文章开始,来个“先抑后扬”、先说普遍再说特殊,这时,句群会出现一种反转关系,那么这些反转关系的标记词很重要,因为在其后,那个句子很可能就是本文或本段的主旨了。

这些词语包括:

but

nevertheless

still

conversely

nonetheless

unfortunately

evenso

on the contrary

whenin fact

however

onthe other hand

yet

incontrast

regardless

at times the main idea will not be stated directly. this is called an implied main idea. read all of the specific statements, not just the ones that open the paragraphs. think of ageneral statement that could sum up the specifics as effectively as any stated topic sentence. as there will not be a topic sentence, you will have to write one.the main idea you write must be a complete sentence that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.

更多时候,作者不会很明确地说出主旨,而是“暗示”。那么就需要认真读第一段所有句子,试着用自己的话把它写出来。这个句子必须是完整的、包括主语和谓语的句子。

之前我们一直强调“三字经”,即用“一句话、三元素”来概括段落或整篇文章:(1)谁:文章讲的是何人、何物?(2)做什么:这个人、物做了什么?(3)怎么做:是怎么做的?这样可以防止概括过于笼统、或过于具体。

once you feel sure that you have found the main idea, test it. ask yourself if the sentence could act as a summary of the other sentences in the paragraph. do the examples, reasons, and facts included in the reading explain or give evidence supporting the main idea you have in mind? if they do, then you are right on target. if they don’t, you may want to revise your main idea.

一旦你写出了、或者选出了那个main idea的句子,要试着“证明”一下:文章中的例子、事实、原因……是否能共同指向你这个主旨句,即:都在证明、或者解释它。

一般我们容易犯的错误就是这个主旨句太“宽”或太“窄”。太宽,就是说它可能涵盖了很多本文并没有涉及的细节,那么它就可能off the point(跑题);太窄,则是它仅仅涵盖到文中部分细节。所以心里要始终问这个问题:what do all major details share in common?

总结一下:以下位置可能提示主旨:

文中直接呈现为标题、首尾句;

用不同的句子表达相同的主题;

转折词(如but)后面的句子;

用“主谓状”一句话,说出文中所有事实、细节、原因等的共性。

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